WEIGHTS AND MEASURES  NOW
AND THEN.
This page is mainly about the weights and measures used
pre decimalisation with an old explanation about decimals
that you may not have come across before. Sections are as
follow:
METRIC WEIGHTS
AND MEASURES
The advantages
of the metric system are great, and are as follows:
(a) Reduction
from one denomination to another is done by moving the
decimal point.
(b) The units
of length, surface, solidity and weight are naturally
connected.
(c) A
convenient measure or weight is taken as a unit; all other
measures or weights in the same table are multiples or
decimal parts of this unit.
(d) The
nomenclature is simple and uniform; the multiples have the
Greek prefixes Deka (10), Hecto (100), Kilo (1,000), and
Myria (10,000), while the subrnultiples have the Latin
prefixes Deci, Centi, Milli.
The Metre was
originally intended to be the tenmillionth part of the
Arc of the Meridian extending from the Equator to the
Pole.
A Select
Committee of the House of Commons appointed on the 13th
February 1895, to inquire whether any and what changes in
the present system of Weights and Measures should be
adopted, recommended as follows:
(a) That the
the metrical system of weights and measures be at once
legalised for all purposes,
(b) That after
a lapse of two years the metrical system be rendered
compulsory by Act of Parliament.
(c) That the
metrical system of weights and measures be taught in all
public elementary schools as a necessary and integral part
of Arithmetic, and that decimals be introduced at an
earlier period of the school curriculum than is the case
at present.
On the 6th
August 1897, in pursuance of the first of these
recommendations, Parliament passed the Weights and
Measures (Metric System) Act, 1897 (60 & 61 Vict., Cap.
46), By this statute the use of' metric weights and
measures in trade in this country is made lawful, but the
Imperial System also remains legal.
The following
metric units wore approved by an Order in Council made on
the 19th May, 1898:
The Metre is
represented by the distance marked by two fine lines on
the ridioplatinum standard bar numbered 16, when at the
temperature of O' Centigrade. This bar is deposited with
the Board of Trade.
The Kilogram
is represented by a cylndrical iridioplatinum standard
Kilogratn weight numbered 18, which is deposited with the
Board of Trade.
The Litre is
represented by the capacity at 0" Centigrade of the
cylindrical brass measure marked " Litre, 1897 " (which is
deposited with the Board of Trade). and having diameter
equal to one half its height.
The Metric System explained
The unit of
linear measure is the Metre (the tenmillionth part of the
distance from the
Equator to
either pole = 39.37011 inches = 3.280843 feet. = 1.0936143
yards)
The unit of
Square measure is the ARE = a square Dekametre.
The unit of
Cubic measure is the STERE = a cubic Metre.
The unit of
Weight measure is the GRAMME = the weight of a cubic
centimetre of water
The unit of
capacity measure is the LITRE = a cubic Decimetre.
To indicate
multiples of the unit, four Greek prefixes are used
Deka 10 times
the unit
Hekto 100
Kilo 1000
Myria 10000
To indicate
sub multiples of the unit, three Latin prefixes are used
Deci  1/10th
of the unit
Centi 
1/100th
Milli  1
/1000th
MEASURE OF LENGTH
1 millimetre
0.03937 inch
10
rnillimetres 1 centimetre 0.3937011 inch
10 centimetres
1 decimetre 3.9370113 inches
10 decimetres
1 metre 3.280843 feet
1.0936143
yards
10 rnetres 1
dekametre 10.936143 yards
10 dekametres
1 hektometre 109.36143 yards
10 hektometres
1 kilometre 0.62137 mile.
10 kilometres
1 myriametre 6.2137 miles.
(A Kilometre
is approximately 5/8ths of a mile)
MEASURE OF SURFACE
10 milliares 1
centiare 1 square metre
10 centiares 1
deciare 10 square metres
10 deciares 1
are 100 square metres
10 ares 1
decare 1,000 sqaure metres
10 decares 1
hectare 10,000 square metres
10 rnilliares
1 centiare 10.76427 square feet
10 centiares 1
deciare 11.96033 square yards
10 deciares 1
are 119.6033 square yards
10 ares 1
dekare 0.247110 acre
10 dekares 1
hektare 2.471098 acres
10 hektares 1
square kilometre 0.38611 square mile
The Are and
its multiples are used for measuring land , for other
purposes the square metre is generally the unit. 0.405
hektare = 1 acre, while 259 hektares = 1 square mile.
MEASURES OF VOLUME (cubic measure)
The unit is
the Stere = 1 cubic metere = 61,024 cubic inches
10 centisteres
1 decistere = 3 53148 cubic feet
10 decisteres
1 stere = 1 cubic metre
10 decisteres
1 stere = 1.307954 cubic yards
10 steres 1
dekastere = 13.07954 cubic yards
CUBIC MEASURE
The Cubic
Metre is the unit
1000 cubic
millimetres 1 cubic centimetre 0.061024 cubic inch
1000 cu
centimetres 1 cubic decimetre 61.02391 cu inches
1000 cu
decimetres 1 cubic metre = 35.3148 cu ft
1 cubic metre
= 1.307954 cu yards.
MEASURE OF CAPACITY
10 millilitres
1 centilitre = 0.070 gill
10 centilitres
1 decilitre = 0.176 pint
10 decilitres
( 1000 cc ) 1 litre = 1.75980 pints
10 litres 1
dekalitre = 2.20 gallons
10 dekalitres
1 hectolitre = 2.75 bushels 10 hectolitres 1 kilolitre
1 litre =
1000.027 cc 1 millilitre = 1 cc
1 kilolitre =
1 cubic metre = 1 stere
MEASURES OF WEIGHT
1000
micrograms 1 milligram 0.015 grain
10 milligrams
1 centigram 0.15432 grain
10 centigrams
1 decigram 1.54323 grains
10 decigrams 1
gramme 15.4323 grains
10 grammes 1
dekagram 5.6438 drams
10 dekagrams 1
hektogram 3.5274 ozs,
10 hektograms
1 kilogram 2.2046223 lbs.
or 15432.3564
gr
10 kilograms 1
myriagram 22.046223 Ibs.
10 myriagrams
1 quintal 1.968412 cwt.
10 quintals 1
tonne 0.984206 ton Troy
The metric
carat = 0.2 gram
1 gramme =
weight of 1 cc of water.
= 0.03215 oz
Troy
= 15.432
grains Apothecaries
= 0.2572
drachm
= 15.432
grains
SQUARE MEASURE
100 square
millimetres 1 square centimetre = 0.15500 square inch
100 square
centimetres 1 square decimetre = 15.50 square inches
100 square
decimetres 1 square metre = 10.7639 square feet
square metre =
1.960 square yards
100 square
rnetres 1 are = 119. 60 square yards
10,000 square
meters 1 hektare = 2.47106 acres
100 square
hektometres = square kilometre = 0.386103 square mile
LINEAR MEASURE
1 inch 25.400
millimetres = 2.54 centimetres
12 inches 1
foot = 3.048 decimetres
=0.30480 metre
3 feet 1 yard
= 0.914399 metre
1 fathom 6 ft
= 1.8288 metres
1 rod, pole or
perch 5.1/2 yds = 5 0292 metres
1 chain 22 yds
= 20.1168 metres
1 furlong 220
yards = 201168 metres
40 poles ; 1
furlong = 201168 metres
1 mile 8
furlongs = 1.6093 kilometres
3 miles 1 = 1
league
OTHER MEASURES OF LENGTH
3 barleycorns
1 inch
3 inches 1
palm
4 inches 1
hand
7.92 inches 1
link
9 inches 1
span
18 inches 1
cubit
2.1/2 ft 1
military pace
5 feet 1
geometrical pace
6 feet 1
fathom
25 links 1
pole
4 poles or 100
links 1 chain of land
608 ft 1
cables length
The pole
varied in length in different counties  3 yards in
Cheshire and Staffordshire.; 7 yards in Lancashire and
elsewhere can be 5 or 6 yards. But by the Weights and
Measures Act 1875 5.1/2 yards = 1 pole.
MILE MEASUREMENTS
Statute mile =
1760 yards
Russian verst = 1168 yards
Scots mile =
1984 yards
Italian mile = 1467 yards
Irish mile =
2240 yards
Spanish mile = 5028 yards
Nautical mile.
= 2027.2/3 yards Kilometre =1093.6 yards
Geographical
mile = 2,026.6 yards
French mean
league = 3,666 yards
SEA MEASURE
6 feet 1
fathom
15 feet 1
chain
1 shackle 1 /8
cable
100 fathoms 1
cables length
10 cables 1
sea mile
A cables
length is sometimes taken as 120 fathoms.
The nautical
mile is 1/60th part of a degree latitude in the latitude
of Great Britain and = 6080 feet
SQUARE MEASURE
1 square inch
= 6.4516 centimetres
144 square
inches 1 square foot = 9.2903 sq decimetres
9 square feet
1 square yard = 0.836126 sq. metres
30.1/4 square
yards 1 square rod, pole or perch
= 25.293 sq
metres
40 rods,pole
or perches 1 rood = 10.117 Ares
4 roods or
4840 sq yds 1 acre = 0.40468 hectare
640 acres 1
square mile = 259.00 hectares
272.1/4 sq
feet 1 rod of brickwork
100 sq feet 1
square of flooring
625 sq links 1
square pole
16 sq poles 1
square chain
10 sq chains 1
acre
30 acres 1
yard of land
100 acres 1
hide of land
40 hides 1
barony
CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE
1728 cubic
inches 1 cubic foot
27 cubic feet
1 cubic yard
5 cubic feet 1
barrel bulk shipping
40 cubic feet
1 ton shipping
40cubic feet
unhewn timber 1 load
50 cubic feet
hewn timber 1 load
108 cubic feet
1 stack of wood
128 cubic feet
1 cord of wood
165 cubic feet
1 standard
277.274cubic
inches of water = 1 Imperial gallon and weighs10 Ibs.
2218.192 cu
inches = 1 Imperial standard bushel
1 cu foot of
distilled water at 62 F and barometer 30 ins weighs 1,000
ounces avoirdupois and contains 6.24 gallons.
20 ozs or
1.1/4 lb of distilled water = 1 pint.
The
relationship between the yard and the bushel is not
legally defined but a relationship based on capacity
measure gives 1 cu yard = 21.022 bushels.
TROY WEIGHT
4 grains = 1
carat
6 carats = 1
pennyweight
24 grains = 1
pennyweight
20
pennyweights = 1ounce
12 ounces = 1
pound
15 pounds = 1
quarter
100 pounds = 1
hundredweight
20
hundredweights = 1 ton of gold or silver.
1 gram =
0.03215 ounce Troy
1 gram =
15.432 grains
The ounce Troy
is used for weighing precious metals. The term carat is
not a unit of weight for precious metals but a measure of
quality being the number of 24ths of pure gold in an
alloy, thus a 9ct gold ring contains 9 parts gold and 15
parts base metal.
AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT
1 grain =
0.0648 gram
1 dram = 1,772
grams
16 drams 1
ounce = 437.5 grains = 28.350 grams 16 ounces 1 pound =
7000 grains =0.45359243 kg
14 pounds 1
stone = 6.350 kg
28 pounds 1
quarter = 12.70 kg
4 quarters 1
hundredweight (112 lbs) = 50.80 kg
20
hundredweights 1 ton (2240 lbs ) = 1.0160 tonnes
100 lbs 1
central or new hundredweight
8 lbs 1 stone
(London meat market )
The new
hundred weight, approved by Order in Council 4 February
1879, was used for coarse or drossy materials eg Pitch,
tar, resin, tin, iron; all grocery and chandlery ware,
silk and all metals except gold and silver. Bread by the
Sale of Bread Acts was sold by weight. Some silks were
weighed by the great pound of 24 ounces; others by the
common pound of 16 ounces.
One pound
avoirdupois contains 14 ounces 11 pennyweights and 16
grains Troy, equals 7000 grains.
A stone varied
with goods between 8lbs and 20 lb. 14 lb is the weight of
a stone for weighing jockeys for horse racing.
APOTHECARIES WEIGHT
1 grain =
0.0648 gram
20 grains 1
scruple = 1.296 grams
3 scruples 1
drachm = 3.888 grams
8 drachms 1
ounce. = 31.1035 grams
1 gram =
0.2572 drachm
1 gram =
0.7716 scruple
1 gram =
15.432 grains
The
Apothecaries` and Troy pound of 12 ounces does not exist
The Grain and
Ounce are the same as Troy.
APOTHECARIES FLUID MEASURE
1 drop = 1
minim = 0.059 millilitre
60 minirns = 1
fluid drachm = 3.552 millilitres
8 Fluid
drachms = 1 fluid ounce = 2.84123 millilitres
20 fluid
ounces = 1 pint = 0.568 litre
160 fluid
ounces = 1 gallon = 4.5459631 litres
One fl.oz
contains 437.5 grains weight of distilled water or 1/160th
of an Imperial gallon; one fl drachm = 1/8th fl oz or
54.6875 grains. One minim 1/60th of a fl drachm or
0.911458 grains.
TROY, AVOIRDUPOIS & APOTHECARIES WEIGHTS
COMPARED
Grains
oz
lb
437.1/2
1oz (Avoir)
480
1 (Troy)
5760
1 (Troy)
7000
1 (Avoir)
Troy &
Apothecaries Avoirdupois
1 oz
1.09714 oz
1 lb
0.82286 lb
175 lb
144 lb
175 oz
192 oz
The grain is
the same in all three weights.
LIQUID AND CAPACITY MEASURE
1 gill = 1.42
decilitres
4 gills = 1
pint = 0.568 litre
2 pints = 1
quart = 1.136 litres
4 quarts = 1
gallon = 4.5459631 litres
2 gallons = 1
peck = 9.092 litres
4 pecks = 1
bushel = 3.637 dekalitres
8 bushels = 1
quarter = 2.909 hectolitres
36 bushels = 1
chaldron
9 gallons = 1
firkin of ale or beer)
36 gallons = 1
barrel (ale or beer)
42 gallons = 1
tierce
54 gallons = 1
hogshead (ale or beer)
72 gallons = 1
puncheon (ale or beer)
108 gallons =
1 pipe or butt (ale or beer)
There is no
legal equivalent of the gallon in cubic inches but
scientists have measured it as 277.420 cubic inches.
DRY MEASURE
4 gills 1 pint
2 pints 1
quart
2 quarts 1
pottle
4 quarts 1
gallon
2 gallons 1
peck
4 pecks 1
bushel
8 bushels 1
quarter
2 bushesls 1
strike
4 bushels 1
coomb
2 coombs 1
quarter
36 bushels 1
chaldron
5 quarters 1
Wey or load
2 weys 1 last
A bushel of
Wheat on an average weighs 60 pounds ; Barley', 47 lbs,
Oats 40 pounds.
The Gallon
contains exactly 10 pounds Avoirdupois of Distilled Water
at 62'F at a barometric pressure of 1015.9 millibars.
By these are
measured all kinds of grain, such as Barley, Wheel, Oats,
Peas, &c' , which are stricken with a stick having an even
surface from end to end (i.e., made even all over and
level with the top of the sides of the measure). The
Standard Bushel contains 2,218.192 or about 2,218 cubic
inches and a fifth, and measures 19.1/2 inches in
diameter, and 8.1/4 inches deep. By Act of Parliament,
apples, pears, currants, &c., and goods that " cannot be
conveniently stricken " were
permitted to be sold by the
heaped bushel.
The" cran "
measure was made legal for the sale of fresh herrings
under the Herring Fishery(Scotland)Act,1889 The"cran
"contains 87.1/2 Imperial gallons, and is equivalent to a
cubic capacity of 10,397.77 cubic inches
TABLE OF EQUIVALENTS
lb of water

Cubic
Inches' 
Gills 
Pints 
Quarts 
GalIons 
Pecks 
Bushels 
Quarters 
1.25 
34.2/3 
4 
1 





2.5 
69.5/16 
8 
2 





10 
277.1/4 
32 
8 
4 
1 



20 
554.1/2 
64 
16 
8 
2 
1 


80 
2,218.1/5

256 
64 
32 
8 
4 
1 

640 
17,745.3/5

2,048 
512 
256 
164 
32 
8 
1 
WOOL WEIGHT &
CLOTH MEASURE
7 pounds = 1
clove
2.1/4. inches =1 nail
2 cloves = 1
stone
4 nails = 1 quarter
2 stones = 1
tod
27 inches = 1 Flemish ell
6.1/2 tods = 1
wey
4 quarters = 1 yard
2 weys = 1
sack
45 inches = 1 English ell
12 sacks = 1
last
54 inches = 1 French ell
37 inches = 1 Scottish ell
COMMERCIAL
ABBREVIATIONS
Cr. Credit(or)
a/c account
B/S Bill of Sale
Dr. Debit,
debtor A/C account of B/L
Bill of Lading
P. per n/a
no account
B/E Bill of Exchange
ALE AND BEER MEASURE
2 Pints 1
Quart
4 Quarts 1
gallon
4.1/2 gallons
1 pin
2 Pins or 9
gallons 1 firkin.
2 Firkins or
18 gallons 1 Kilderkin.
2 Kilderkins
or 36 gallons 1 Barrel.
1.1/2 barrels
or 54 Gallons or 3 kilderkins 1 Hogshead
2 barrels 1
Puncheon
3 barrels, or
2 hogsheads 1 Butt
WINE MEASURE
4 Gills 1
Pint.
2 Pints 1
Quart.
4 Quarts 1
Gallon.
10 Gallons 1
Anker (Brandy).
18 Gallons 1
Runlet.
.31.1/2
Gallons 1 Hogshead.
*42 Gallons 1
Tierce,
*63 Gallons
1Hogshead (hhd),
84 Gallons, or
2 Tierces 1 Puncheon,
*2 Hogsheads,
or 126 gallons 1 Pipe or Butt,
*2 Pipes, or
252 gallons 1 Tun.
In some parts
or the country a gill is reckoned half a pint,
Pipes vary in
quantity according to the kind of wine they contain; viz.
a pipe of Lisbon 117 gallons, of Port 115, of sherry 108,:
of Vidonia 100, of Madeira 92.
An Imperial
Gallon measures 277.274 cubic inches, 6 bottles of spirits
= 1 gallon. A Barrique ( a Bordeaux measure of Claret) =
225 litres = 499 gallons 1 quart, l.955 pints, or 49.1/2
gallons (very nearly). Spirits, honey,,oil, vinegar,
cider, &c..are measured by this measure.
* These are
old " Winchester " wine gallons, one of which equals
0..8331 imperial gallons. A hhd. of wine= 52.1/2 imperial
gallons. A pipe of wine=105 imperial gallons. 1 Tierce =
1/2 of a pipe..
Other casks.
Over time the
nature of barrels and casks have become more machine made
and regular in their capacity ( called the `content` = the
full quantity). Hand made casks by tradesmen (
`coopers` ) are greatly valued especially by the whisky
trade as the raw spirit must, by law , be stored in oak
casks for a minimum of 3 years to allow it to mature ).
Brandy
Puncheons
(French ) content varies 119  130 gallons
Hogsheads 59 
64
Quarter casks
31  33
Octaves 16
California
Barrels 39 
40
( used for rum
and by the whisky trade for maturing spirits )
Geneva
Puncheons 120
 140
Hogsheads 55 
68
Quarter casks
32  35
Rum
Puncheons
(Demerara ) 106  116
Hogsheads 52 
63
Barrels 36 
38
Puncheons (
Jamaica ) 87  115
Hogshead 52 
57
Barrel 39  45
Puncheons (
Cuba ) 118  140
Port
Pipes ( Oporto
) 116  125
Hogsheads 58 
60
Quarters 28 
30
Octaves 14 
15
Pipes ( Lisbon
) 117  119
Hogsheads 58 
59
Quarters 28 
29
Tarragona
Bocoye 125 
155
Puncheons 116
 120
Puncheon 87 
91
Pipes 116 
120
Hogsheads 57 
60
Sherry
Puncheon 108 
117
Butts 108 
115
Hogsheads 53 
56
Quarter casks
27  28
Octaves 13.1/2
 14
Alicante
Butts 119 
120
Malaga
Butts 118 
120
Alsace
Drum 120  140
Algeria
Drum 120  150
Hogshead 50 
52
Claret
Hogsheads (
France & Italy ) 48  50
Burgundy
Hogsheads
(France) 49  51
Marsala
Pipes 110 
112
Butts 111 
112
Hogsheads (
two types) 46 & 56
Quarter casks
(two types) 22 & 28
Madeira
Pipes 93  95
Hogsheads 43 
47
Quarter casks
24
California
wine
Hogsheads 40 
43
Australian
Hogsheads 62 
70
South Africa
Barrel 37  44
Israel
Hogshead 60 
70
Barrel 39  45
Italy (
machine made casks )
Vermouth large
64  68
Vermouth small
47  51
Light wine 73
 78
Germany
Stuck 200 
260
Half stuck 120
 145
Fuder 200 
225
Half Fuder 110
 140
Double Aum 60
 74
Aum 30  40
SIZES OF BOTTLES
Magnum 2 Bott,
Double magnum
4 bottles
Jeraboam 6
bottles
6 bottles 1
gallon
Rehoboam ( or
Imperial) 8 bottles
Tappit Hen 6
bottles
1 bottle 1
Reputed quart
PAPER MEASURE
25 Sheets make
1 Quire
20 Quires or
500 Sheets 1 Ream
HandMade Paper
24 Sheets make
1 Quire
472 Sheets 1
Mill Ream
480 Sheets 1
Inside Ream
SIZES OF PAPER
Standard Basic
Sizes Other Sizes
Dimensions
Dimensions
Large Post 21
x 16.1/2 Sheet and 1/3rd F'cap 22.1/2 x 13.1/2
Demy 22.1/2 x
17.1/2 Sheet and 1/2 F`cap, 25.1/2 x 13.1/2
Medium 23 x 18
Ledger Demy 20 x 15.1/2
Double Cap 27
x 17 Ledger Royal 24 x 19
Royal 25 x 20
Atlas 34 x 26
Double Crown
30 x 20 Double Elephant 40 x 27
Imperial 30 x
22 Antiquarian 53 x 31
International
AZ 16.1/2 x 23.3/8
Brown Paper
Cut Cards
Dimensions
Dimensions
Irish Casing
48 x 36 Thirds 1.1/2 x 3
Casing 46 x 36
Extra Thirds 1.3/4 x 3
Double
Imperial45 x29 Town 2 x 3
Elephant 34 x
24 Small 2.3/8 x 3.5/8
Double
FourPound31 x 21 Large 3 x 4.1/2
Imperial Cap
29 x 22 Court 3.1/2 x 4.1/2
Haven Cap 26 x
21 Large Court 4 x 5
Bag Cap 24 x
19.1/2 Official (Post Card) 3.1/2 x 5.1/2
Kent Cap 21 x
18 Extra Large 4.1/8 x 5.7/8
SIZES OF BOOKS
Fo. = Folio
Sheet folded into 2 Leaves or 4 Pages
4to = Quarto 4
8
8vo. = Octavo
8 16
12mo. = Duo
decimo 12 24
16mo. = Sexto
decimo 16 32
STANDARD SIZES
OF BRITISH BOOKS
Size
Abbreviation Inches Size Abbreviation Inches
Foolscap
octavo FS 6.3/4x 4.1/4
Demy quarto D4
11.1/4 x 81.3/4
Crown octavo
C8 7.1/2 x 5
Medium quarto
M4 12 x 9.1/2
Large crown
octavo lC8 8 x 5.1/4
Royal Quarto
R4 12.1/2 x 10
Demy octavo D8
8.3/4 x 5.5/8
Imperial
quarto Imp4 15 x 11
Medium octavo
M8 9.1/2 x 6
Foolscap folio
F fol 13.1/2 x 8.1/2
Royal octavo
RS 10 x 6.1/4
Crown folio
Cfol 15 x 10
Imperial
octavo Imp8 11 x7.1/2
Royal folio
Rfol 20 x 12.1/5
Foolscap
quarto F4 8.1/2 x 6.3/4
Imperial folio
Impfol 22 x 15.1/2
Crown quarto
C4 10 x 7.1/2
1 large. s =
small may precede some abbreviations.
Old London Postal Districts
Abbey Wood S.E.2

Hampstead N.W.3

Shepherd's Bush W.12

Acton W.3

Hanwell W.7

S.E. (Head) District
S.E.1 
Anerley S.E.20

Hendon N.W.4

Southgate N.14

Balham S.W.12

Herne Hill
S.E.24 
South
KensingtonS.W.7 
Barnes S.W.13

Highbury N.5

South Lambeth S.W.8

Battersea S.W.11

Highgate N.6

South Norwood S.E.25

Bethnal Green E.2

Holloway N.7

South Tottenham N.15

Blackheath S.E.3

Homerton E.9

South Western (Head)
District S.W.1 
Bow E.3

Hornsey N.8

Stockwell S.W.9

Brixton S.W.2

Kennington S.E.1

Stoke Newington N.16

Brockley S.E.4

Kensington W.8

Stratford E.15

Camberwell S.E.5

Kentish Town
N.W.5 
Streatham S.W.16

Catford
S.E.6 
Kilbum N.W.6

Sydenham S.E.26

Charlton S.E.7

Lee S.E.12

The Hyde N.W.9

Chelsea S.W.3

Lewisham S.E.13

Tooting S.W.17

Chingford E.4

Leyton E.10

Totttenham N.17

Chiswick W.4

Leytonstone E.11

Upper Edmonton N.18

Clapham S.W.4

Lower Edmonton N.9

Upper Holloway N.19

Clapton E.5

Maida Hill W.9

Victoria Docks &
North Woolwich E.16 
Cricklewood N.W.2

Manor Park E.12

Walthamstow E..17

Deptford
S.E.8 
Mill Hill N.W.7

Walworth S.E.17

Dulwich S.E.21

Mortlake S.W.14

Wandsworth S.W.18

Ealing W.5

Muswell Hill N.10

West Brompton SW 10

Earl's Court SW.5

New Cross S.E.14

West Ealing W.13

East Dulwich
S.E.22 
New Southgate
N.11 
Western Central
(Head) District W.C.1  2 
Eastern Central
Head District )E.C.14 
Northern (Head)District
N.1 
Western (Head)
District W.1 
Eastern ( Head)
District E.1 
North Finchley N.12

West Kensington W.14

East Finchley N.2

North Kensington
W.10 
West Norwood S.E.27

East Ham E.6 (
Head)

North Western
(Head) District N.W.1 
West Wimbledon
S.W.20 
Eltharn S.E..9

Norwood S.E.19

Whetstone N.20

Finchley. Church End
N.3 
Notting Hill W.11

Willesden N.W.10

Finsbury Park N.4

Paddington
(Head) District W.2 
Wimbledon S.W.19

Forest Gate E.7

Palmer's Green N.13

Winchmore Hill N.21

Forest Hill
SE..23 
Peckham S.E.15

Woodford & South
Woodford E.18 
Fulham S.W.6

Plaistow E.13

Wood Green N.22

Golders Green
N.W.11 
Poplar E.14

Woolwich S.E.18

Greenwich S.E.10

Putney S.W.15


Hackney E.8

Rotherhithe S.E.16


Hammersmith W.6

St. John's Wood
N.W.8 

ROMAN
NUMBERS
These are
expressed by certain letters of the alphabet, viz.: I, V,
X, L, C, D and M. When one of these symbols is followed by
one of equal or less value the number
indicated is
equivalent to the sum of the values of the individual
symbols; thus VIII= 5+1+1+1= 8. When a symbol is preceded
by one of less value, the number
indicated is
equal to the difference of the values of the symbols; thus
IV = 5  1 =4,
The following
table gives the Roman numerals as most frequently found in
printed works:
1 1. 16 XVI.
75 LXXV.
2 11. 17 XYII.
80 LXXX.
3 111. 18
XVIII.
85 LXXXV.
4... IV. 19
XIX.
90 XC.
5 V. 20 XX.
100 C
6 VI. 25 XXV.
200 CC.
7 VII. 30..
XXX.
300 CCC.
8 VIII. 35
XXXV. 400
CD.
9 IX. 40 XL.
500 D.
10 X. 45 XLV.
600 DC.
11 XI. 50 L.
700 DCC.
12 XII. 55 LV.
800 DCCC.
13 XIII. 60
LX
900 CM.
14 XIV. 65 LXV.
1000 M .
15 XV. 70. LXX.
2000 MM.
There exist
also less general rnethods of expressing numbers in Roman
notation:e.g., a line placed over a Rornan numeral multi
plies its value by 1,000: thus X ( with bar above) =
10,000. Note also that 1,000 is expressed in each of the
following ways: I, M (the initial letter of m ille, the
Latin word for 1,000), ¥ , and CIÉ (inverted C )
IÉ=500; and
each inverted C added multiplies by 10; thus IÉÉ=5000.
1899=MDCCCXCIX,
or CIÉIÉCCCXCIX.
N.B.The
figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, are Arabic symbols, and
all our numbers are formed by these with the help of the
cypher 0.
MISCELLANEOUS TABLE
12 Articles
make 1 Dozen,
12 Dozen 1
Gross.
12 Gross, or
144 Dozen 1 Great Gross.
20 Articles 1
Score.
5 Score, or 1
Quintal 1 Common Hundred.
6 Score 1
Great Hundred.
Horse Power
equals 33,000 footpounds of work per minute.
The
Acceleration due to gravity at the sealevel in lat. 45'
equals
32.1703 feet per second. The Velocity of Light equals
186,300 miles per second.( 186,282.6 miles per sec in
vacuo )
The Velocity
of Sound equals about 1,130 feet per second.
A Degree of
the Equator equals 691.70 miles.
One inch of
Rainfall equals 100 tons 9 cwt of water per acre.
One Ton of
Water contains 35.9 cubic feet.
One Atmosphere
equals 14.71 lb per square inch.
29.22 inches
of Mercury = 33.9 feet of Water.
TIME TABLE
60 Seconds 1
Minute.
60 Minutes 1
Hour.
24 Hours 1
Natural Day.
7 Days 1 Week.
4 Weeks, or 29
days 1 Lunar Month.
52 Weeks 1
Day, or 13 Lunar Months 1 D y 1 Year.
365 Days 6
Hours 1 Julian Year.
365 Days 5
Hours 48 Minutes 57 Seconds 39 Thirds = 1 Solar Year.
A Sidereal Day
= the lime that elapses between two successive passages of
a fixed star over the meridian. The Sidereal day never
varies in length ( = 86164.1 mean solar seconds).
An
Astronomical Day = the time elapsing between two
successive passages of the Sun over the meridian. This
exceeds the Sidereal a by nearly four minutes, and is of
different lengths at different times of the year.
A Mean Solar
Day is the average length of the Astronomical Day. This is
what is called in the above table the Natural Day.
A Sidereal
Mouth is the period of one complete revolution of the Moon
round the Earth. Its length is 27.1/3rd days, or more
accurately 27.321661423 days.
A Lunar (or
Synodic) Month is the period between two successive
conjunctions of the Sun and Moon on the same side of the
Earth. In a Lunar Month the Moon passes through 360'+ 27'
degrees (approximately) and takes 29.530588716 days.
A Calendar
Month is the month as computed in an aimanack and consists
of either 30 or 31 days except in February, when it has
28, but in Leap Year 29 days.
A Sidereal
Year is the period of one complete revolution of the Earth
round the Sun.
A Tropical (or
Solar) Year is the interval between two successive returns
of the Sun to the same tropic or equinox. Owing to the
`Precession of the Equinoxes` the Sidereal Year exceeds
the Tropical Year by 0.014119 days, or 20m. 20s.
The
Anomalistic Year is the period between two successive
times at which the Earth is at perihelion. In this year
the Earth passes through 360' 11' 25', and takes
365.259544 days.
The Julian
Year (arranged in the time of Julius Caesar) was made to
consist of 365.1/4 days.
The Civil Year
always consists of an exact number of days, 365 or 366.
The extra periods of 6 hours, when the years are made to
be of 365 days, are added together every fourth year and
added to February, which then has 29 days, and we are then
said to have Leap Year. To prevent error further
adjustments are rnade
Equinoctial
Time is the time that has elapsed since the Vernal Equinox
(March 21st); that is, since the sun crossed the line (or
Equator) in Spring.
HOW TO TELL
LEAP YEAR'
Leap year
(consisting of 366 days) is found by dividing the year of
our Lord (Anno Domini, or A.D.) by 4; if there is no
remainder it is Leap Year; if otherwise, the remainder
shows how many years it is after Leap Year. When, however,
the number terminates a century as 1500, 1900, the year
has only 365 days, except when the hundreds are divisible
by 4, as in 2000, 2400, 1600. where 20, 24, and 16 are
divisible by 4.
SHIP'S TIME
Ship's Time is
measured in " watches " of four hours each, calcuated from
noon or midnight. Four to eight p.m. is divided into two
periods of 2 hours each, called " dogwatches." Thus 12 to
4 p.m. is called the afternoon watch, 4 to 6 the 1st
dogwatch; 6 to 8 the 2nd dog watch; 8 to 12 the 1st
nightwatch; 12 to 4 a.m. the middle watch; 4 to 8 a.m.
the morning watch; 8 to 12 noon the forenoon watch.
A bell is rung
every halfhour to show how many half hours of the watch
have expired; e.g., 6.30 a.m. is Morning watch 5 bells."
TO KNOW THE DAYS IN EACH MONTH
Thirty days
hath September,
April, June,
and November:
February has
twentyeight alone,
And all the
rest have thirtyone.
But Leap Year
coming once in four,
Then gives
February one day more.
THE SEASONS
SPRING
Commences March 2]st (Vernal Equinox) and lasts 92 days 21
hours. SUMMER commences June 22nd (Summe Solstice) and
lasts 93 days 14 hours. AUTUMN commences September 23rd (Autunn
Equinox) and lasts 89 days 17.3/4 hours.
WINTER
commences December 22nd (Winter Solstice) and lasts 89
days 1 hour.
The longest
day is June 21st. The shortest day is December 21st.
QUARTER DAYS
ENGLAND,
IRELAND AND SCOTLAND
Lady Day 25th
March.
Candlemas Day 2nd February.
Midsummer 24th
June.
Whitsunday 15th May.
Michaelmas
29th September. Lammas Day 1st
August.
Christmas 25th
December.
Martinmas 11 th November
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